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In his 2009 book 'The Life You Can Save', Singer presented the thought experiment of a child drowning in a pond before our eyes, something we would all readily intervene to prevent, even if it meant ruining an expensive pair of shoes we were wearing. He argued that, in fact, we are in a very similar ethical situation with respect to many people in the developing world: there are life-saving interventions, such as vaccinations and clean water, that can be provided at only a relatively small cost to ourselves. Given this, Singer argues that we in the west should give up some of our luxuries to help those in the world who are most in need. Around this central idea a new movement has emerged over the past few years known as Effective Altruism, which seeks to use the best evidence available in order to help the most people and do the most good with the limited resources that we have available. 
Under which conditions do we compete and when do we collaborate with each other? An Introduction into altruism from the psychology point of view. 
Altruism vs. selfishness: According to Mattieu Ricard Altruism or more consideration for others is the pragmatic answer to address environmental and social issues of nowadays societies. 
Ayn Rand was one of the most outstanding representatives of liberalism. She regards Altruists as evil as it means sacrificing yourself, placing the interests of others above your own...
Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics holding that the moral action is the one that maximizes utility. Utility is defined in various ways, including as pleasure, economic well-being and the lack of suffering. Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism, which implies that the 'end justifies the means'. This view can be contrasted or combined with seeing intentions, virtues or the compliance with rules as ethically important. Classical utilitarianism's two most influential contributors are Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Bentham, who takes happiness as the measure for utility, says, 'it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong'.[1]
This video from MIT introduces into Utilitarism. 
Why do even animals give something to another at the cost of themselves?  Richard Dawkins on Altruism and The Selfish Gene.
If you're lucky enough to live without want, it's a natural impulse to help others in need. But, asks philosopher Peter Singer, what's the most effective way to give charitably? He talks through some surprising thought experiments to help you balance emotion and practicality -- and make the biggest impact with whatever you can share.